Figure 5: Effect of Nasturtium officinale extracts on TNF-α levels in the carrageenan-injected paws. Animals received indicated doses of N. officinale (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg, p.o.) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg) 45 min prior to subplantar injection of carrageenan. Four h after subplantar injection of carrageenan, the paw was homogenized and TNF-α levels in the supernatant were determined by ELISA. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM of five to six rats. ##P < 0. 01 Indicates significant differences compared to the saline-treated animals. TNF-α, Tumor necrosis factor.