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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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September-October 2022
Volume 17 | Issue 5
Page Nos. 457-593

Online since Friday, September 9, 2022

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Garcinia mangostana hydrogel patch: bactericidal activity and clinical safety for acne vulgaris treatment Highly accessed article p. 457
Kalyarut Phumlek, Arunporn Itharat, Padcha Pongcharoen, Panlop Chakkavittumrong, Hyang-Yeol Lee, Gi-Seong Moon, Min-Hui Han, Sumalee Panthong, Wichan Ketjinda, Neal M. Davies
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.355195  
Background and purpose: Garcinia mangostana, simply known as mangosteen, has long been used by Thai traditional medicine because of its reported antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities for the treatment of skin infections. In this study, mangosteen pericarps were developed into a hydrogel patch to eradicate acne-inducing bacteria. Experimental procedure: The G. mangostana extract was investigated for bactericidal activity. A hydrogel patch containing the extract was examined for mechanical properties, antibacterial activity, in vitro release, skin permeation, and a phase I clinical study of skin irritation and allergic testing by a closed patch test. Finding/Results: The G. mangostana hydrogel patch made from carrageenan and locust bean gum powders was yellow in color, smooth, durable, and flexible. This G. mangostana hydrogel patch was effective against Cutibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The active ingredient, α-mangostin, was released and permeated from the G. mangostana hydrogel patch within the first 30 min at 33.16 ± 0.81% and 32.96± 0.97%, respectively. The G. mangostana hydrogel patch showed no irritation in 30 healthy volunteers. However, two volunteers had delayed allergic contact dermatitis to 0.5% (w/w) G. mangostana hydrogel patch. Conclusion and implication: This hydrogel patch containing G. mangostana ethanolic extract is not recommended for patients who have any reaction to mangosteen but has utility as an anti-acne facial mask.
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Development and evaluation of polycaprolactone-based electrospun nanofibers containing timolol maleate as a sustained-release device for treatment of glaucoma: in vivo evaluation in equine eye p. 468
Shahla Mirzaeei, Fatemeh Bahrami Faryadras, Saba Mehrandish, Leila Rezaei, Farid Daneshgar, Ahmad Karami
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.355196  
Background and purpose: Prolonging the drug release can be a suitable approach to overcome the challenges related to topical ophthalmic administration of drugs especially the ones prescribed for chronic ailments. The sustained delivery of the drug would reduce the required frequency of administration which could extremely improve patient compliance and feeling of well-being. This study aimed to develop nanofibrous inserts for sustained ophthalmic delivery of timolol maleate (TIM) for the treatment of glaucoma. Experimental approach: Polycaprolactone-based nanofibers containing TIM were prepared using pure polycaprolactone or a blend of it with cellulose acetate or Eudragit RL100 polymers by the electrospinning method. Following the preparation, polymeric inserts were evaluated for morphological and physicochemical properties. The in vitro drug release was assessed and the in vivo efficacy of a selected insert in decreasing the intraocular pressure (IOP) was also evaluated in the equine eyes. Findings / Results: Prepared nanofibers indicated diameter ranged between 122-174 nm. The formulations showed suitable physicochemical properties and stability for ophthalmic administration. In vitro release study showed prolonged release of drug during more than 3 days. In vivo evaluation revealed that the prepared insert is non-irritant and non-toxic to the equine eyes while having suitable efficacy in decreasing the IOP during 6 days. Conclusions and implication: Prepared TIM inserts indicated a higher efficacy than commercial TIM eye drop in lowering IOP during a prolonged period. Thus, these formulations can be considered suitable for enhancing patient compliance by reducing the frequency of administration in the treatment of glaucoma.
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Design and synthesis of some novel triazine-tyrosine hybrids as potential agents for the treatment of multiple sclerosis p. 482
Sajjad Saeidi, Parvin Asadi, Farshid Hassanzadeh, Mehdi Aliomrani, Ghadam Ali Khodarahmi
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.355208  
Background and purpose: One of the most noteworthy methods to slow down multiple sclerosis (MS) progress is a decrease of lymphocyte cells via S1P1 receptor modulating. Here, a series of S1P1 receptor modulators were designed and investigated for their ability to decrease lymphocytes in a rat model. Experimental approach: Molecular docking was performed to compare the binding mode of desired compounds 5a-f with fingolimod to the active site of the S1P1 receptor, theoretically. To prepare desired compounds, 5a-f, cyanuric chloride was reacted with different amines, a-f, which then converted to 4a-f compounds through reaction with N-boc-Tyr-OMe ester. Finally, deprotection of the carboxyl and amino groups was carried out to obtain 5a-f as final products. Lymphocyte counting in the rat model was carried out using flow cytometry to evaluate the efficacy of the suggested compounds. Findings / Results: All compounds exhibited lower binding energy than fingolimod. Compound 5e with ΔG= -8.10 kcal/mol was the best compound. The structure of the compounds was confirmed spectroscopically. The in vivo study proved that compounds 5b and 5a decreased the lymphocytes level at 0.3 and 3 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion and implications: The desired compounds were well fitted in the receptor active site following molecular docking studies. The results of lymphocyte count revealed that compounds 5a and 5b with propyl and ethyl substitutes showed the maximum activity in vivo. Finally, the results of the present project can be used for forthcoming investigations towards the design and synthesis of novel potential agents for MS treatment.
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Crataegus sinaica defatted methanolic extract ameliorated monosodium iodoacetate-induced oxidative stress andinhibited inflammation in a rat model of osteoarthritis p. 493
Ifat A. Alsharif, Reham M. Abd-Elsalam, Mohammed S. Amer, Ahmed H. El-Desoky, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.355209  
Background and purpose: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease without definite treatment. It is characterized by intra-articular inflammation, cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone remodeling, and joint pain. The objective of the current study was to assess the anti-osteoarthritic effect and the possible underlying mechanism of action of Crataegus sinaica extract (CSE). Experimental approach: Intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate in the right knee joint of all rats was done except for the sham group. One week later, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of CSE (100, 200, 300 mg/kg, daily p.o) for 4 successive weeks versus ibuprofen (40 mg/kg, p.o) was assessed. Serum inflammatory cytokines; as well as weekly assessment of knee joint swelling, joint mobility, and motor coordination were done. At the end of the experiment, a histopathological investigation of the affected knee joints and an x-ray investigation were also executed. Findings / Results: CSE significantly decreased joint swelling, pain behaviors, and serum levels of TNF-α, IL6, hyaluronic acid, and CTX-II. The radiographic findings revealed almost normal joint space with normal radiodensity and diameter in CSE-treated rats. As well, the histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations of the knee joints in CSE-treated groups retained the cartilage structure of knee joints. A significant reduction in the percentage of caspase-3-stained chondrocytes and a decrease in TGF-β1 immuno-positive areas in the synovial lining and sub lining were recorded in CSE-treated rats, compared to the osteoarthritis control group. Conclusion and implications: This study approved the chondroprotective effects of CSE, and its ability to inhibit the pain associated with osteoarthritis.
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Expression analysis of HIF-3α as a potent prognostic biomarker in various types of human cancers: a case of meta-analysis p. 508
Behnaz Yazdani, Hajar Sirous
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.355210  
Background and purpose: Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that get activated and stabilized in the heterodimerized form under hypoxic conditions. many studies have reported the importance of the HIF-1α and HIF-2α activity in biological pathways of hypoxic cancer cells. However, the importance of HIF-3α in a variety of cancers remains unknown. Experimental approach: The expression profile of 13 different types of cancer samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were subjected to normalization, and differential gene expression analysis was performed using computational algorithms by R programming. Receiver operating characteristic tests and survival analyses were carried out for HIF-α subunits in different cancers. Findings / Results: The expression status of HIF-3α was notably less in all cancer samples in contrast to their adjacent normal tissues. The expression degree of HIF-1α varied among distinct types of cancer and the expression degree of HIF-2α was lower in nearly all types of cancers. HIF-3α had very weak diagnostic potential, while HIF-2α had better diagnostic potential in most types of cancers compared to HIF-1α. Patients who had a higher level of HIF-3α had better survival, while the higher expression level of HIF-1α and HIF-2α were associated with worse survival in many types of cancers. Conclusion and implications: Our findings showed that each HIF-α subunit had a unique heterogeneous expression pattern in different classes of cancers. The expression level of each HIF-α subunit correlated differently with the stages, tumor sizes, and survival rate of patients from different classes of TCGA cancers.
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Caveolae-dependent endocytosis mediates the cellular uptake of CdTe quantum dots in ovarian cancer cell lines p. 527
Zahra Asadian, Hakimeh Zare, Mahmoud Aghaei, Mojtaba Panjehpour
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.355211  
Background and purpose: Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals that are widely used in biology due to their good optical properties. QDs, especially cadmium-based QDs, play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer due to their intrinsic fluorescence. . The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the cellular uptake mechanisms of CdTe QDs in ovarian cancer cell lines. Experimental approach: In this study, we used CdTe QDs coated with thioglycolic acid. The ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and OVCAR3 were treated with different concentrations of QDs, triamterene, chlorpromazine, and nystatin, and cell viability was evaluated through the MTT test. To find the way of cellular uptake of CdTe QDs, we used the MTT test and interfering compounds in endocytic pathways. Intrinsic fluorescence and cellular internalization of CdTe QDs were assessed using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy imaging. Findings / Results: The viability of CdTe QDs-treated cells dose-dependently decreased in comparison to untreated cells. To evaluate the cellular uptake pathways of CdTe QDs, in most cases, a significant difference was observed when the cells were pretreated with nystatin. The results of flow cytometry showed the cellular uptake of CdTe QDs was dose- and time-dependent. Conclusion and implications: Nystatin had a measurable effect on the cellular uptake of CdTe QDs. This finding suggests that caveola-mediated endocytosis has a large portion on the internalization of CdTe QDs. According to the results of this study, CdTe QDs may have potential applications in cancer research and diagnosis.
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Discovery of novel inhibitors of ghrelin O-acyltransferase enzyme: an in-silico approach p. 540
Faezeh Sadat Hosseini, Alireza Ghassempour, Massoud Amanlou
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.355212  
Background and purpose: Ghrelin is known as a hunger hormone and plays a pivotal role in appetite, food intake, energy balance, glucose metabolism, and insulin secretion, making it a potential target for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The essential maturation step of ghrelin to activate the GHS-R1a is the octanoylation of the Ser3, which is catalyzed by the ghrelin O-acyltransferase enzyme (GOAT) enzyme. Therefore, the inhibition of GOAT may be useful for treating ghrelin-related diseases. Experimental approach: To discover the novel inhibitors against GOAT enzyme by a fast and accurate computational method, here, we tried to develop the homology model of GOAT. Subsequently, the generated model was stabilized by molecular dynamics simulation. The consecutive process of docking, pharmacophore mapping, and large-scale virtual screening were performed to find the potential hit compounds. Findings / Results: The homology model of the GOAT enzyme was generated and the quality of 3D structures was increased to the highest level of > 99.8% of residue in allowed regions. The model was inserted into the lipid bilayer and was stabilized by molecular dynamics simulation in 200 ns. The sequential process of pharmacophore-based virtual screening led to the introduction of three compounds including ethaverine, kaempferitrin, and reglitazar as optimal candidates for GOAT inhibition. Conclusion and implications: The results of this study may provide a starting point for further investigation for drug design in the case of GOAT inhibitors and help pave the way for clinical targeting of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
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Extracted yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.) fiber counteracts adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation while modulating gut microbiota composition in mice fed with a high-fat diet p. 558
Putra Santoso, Rita Maliza, Resti Rahayu, Yunita Astrina, Firman Syukri, Septalian Maharani
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.355213  
Background and purpose: Yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) is a potent medicinal plant exerting therapeutical effects against diseases. However, investigations on the health benefits of its fiber remain limited. This study aimed to investigate the potential of yam bean fiber (YBF) against a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic diseases, inflammation, and gut dysbiosis. Experimental approach: Adult male mice were assigned to four groups (8 each), namely a normal diet-fed group (ND), HFD-fed group, and HFD supplemented with YBF groups (HFD + YBF) at a dose of 2.5% and 10%, respectively. Treatments were implemented for ten weeks. Thereafter, indicators of metabolic diseases, oxidative stress, inflammation, and gut microbiota composition were determined. Findings / Results: A dosage of 10% YBF significantly inhibited excessive body weight gain (2.3 times lower than HFD group) and white adipose tissue (WAT) mass (2.2 times lower than HFD group) while sustaining brown adipose tissue mass. YBF prevented malondialdehyde elevation, catalase activity reduction, and expression of the interleukin-6 increment (2.7 times lower than the HFD group) within the WAT. Furthermore, YBF sustained normoglycaemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity while precluding hyperinsulinemia. YBF modulated the gut microbiota community by increasing health-promoting microbiota including Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, and inhibiting a pathogenic Mucispirillum sp. YBF prevented histopathology and inflammation of the colon. Conclusion and implications: YBF at the dose of 10% is proved to be useful in the prevention of diet-induced metabolic diseases, microbiota dysbiosis, and inflammation. Hence, YBF is recommended as a potential natural-based remedy to diminish the detrimental effects of high-fat foods.
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Design, synthesis, and cytotoxicity evaluation of novel indole-acylhydrazone derivatives of 4-pyridinone as potential histone deacetylase-2 inhibitors p. 572
Niloofar Naghi-Ganji, Lotfollah Saghaei, Farial Tavakoli, Vajihe Azimian, Mina Mirian, Hajar Sirous, Mahboubeh Rostami
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.355214  
Background and purpose: Histone deacetylation is one of the essential cellular pathways in the growth and spread of cancer, so the design of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as anticancer agents is of great importance in pharmaceutical chemistry. Here, a series of indole acylhydrazone derivatives of 4-pyridone have been introduced as potential histone deacetylase inhibitors. Experimental approach: Seven indole-acylhydrazone-pyridinone derivatives were synthesized via simple, straightforward chemical procedures. The molecular docking studies were accomplished on HDAC2 compared to panobinostat. The cytotoxicity of all derivatives was studied on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines by MTT assay. Findings / Results: Molecular docking studies supported excellent fitting to the HADC2 active site with binding energies in the range of -10 Kcal/mol for all derivatives. All compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines; derivatives A, B, F, and G were the best candidates. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values on MCF-7 were below 25 mg/mL and much lower than those obtained on the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Conclusion and implications: The derivatives showed selectivity toward the MCF-7 cell line, probably due to the higher HDAC expression in the MCF-7 cell line. In this regard, debenzylated derivatives F and G showed slightly better cytotoxicity, which should be more studied in the future. Derivatives A, B, F, and G were promising for future enzymatic studies.
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Ferula gummosa gum exerts cytotoxic effects against human malignant glioblastoma multiforme in vitro p. 585
Amir R. Afshari, Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Golrokh Mousavi, Sanam Daneshpour Moghadam, Abolfazl Maghrouni, Hossein Javid, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran, Bahram Bibak, Hamid Mollazadeh, Azar Hosseini
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.355215  
Background and purpose: Ferula gummosa (F. gummosa), a potent medicinal herb, has been shown to possess anticancer activities in vitro. The present examination evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptogenic impacts of F. gummosa gum on the U87 glioblastoma cells. Experimental approach: MTT assay to determine the cell viability, flow cytometry by annexin V/FITC-PI to apoptosis evaluation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and quantitative RT-PCR were performed. Findings / Results: The results revealed that F. gummosa inhibited the growth of U87 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with IC50 values of 115, 82, and 52 μg/mL obtained for 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment, respectively. It was also identified that ROS levels significantly decreased following 4, 12, and 24 h after treatment. The outcomes of flow cytometry analysis suggested that F. gummosa induced a sub-G1 peak which translated to apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Further examination revealed that F. gummosa upregulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and p53 genes at mRNA levels. Conclusion and implications: Collectively, these findings indicate that sub-G1 apoptosis and its related genes may participate in the cytotoxicity of F. gummosa gum in U87 cells.
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