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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 53-65

Novel N-substituted indole hydrazones as potential antiplatelet agents: synthesis, biological evaluations, and molecular docking studies

1 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, I.R. Iran
2 Central Research Laboratories; Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran
3 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran

Correspondence Address:
Shohreh Mohebbi
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan
I.R. Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1735-5362.329926

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Background and purpose: Antiplatelet agents can diminish the chance of coronary heart diseases due to the prevention of unusual clotting in the arteries by inhibiting platelet aggregation and avoiding the formation of a blood clot. This mechanism can help to prevent ischemic stroke likewise. To improve the activity of these drugs and reduce their side effects, further studies are required. Experimental approach: Based on the previous studies representing the promising antiplatelet activity of indole hydrazones, a series of their homologs containing twenty-one compounds were prepared in two steps. First, alkylation reaction on the nitrogen of the indole ring, and second, chiff base formation by condensation of a primary amine and N-substituted indole-3 carbaldehyde. Consequently, their platelet anti-aggregation activity was evaluated based on the Born turbidimetric method. Findings/Results: Most of the compounds exhibited noticeable activity against platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid. Amongst them, two compounds 2e and 2f showed higher activity with IC50 values that made comparable to indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid as standard drugs and had no toxicity on platelets. Conclusion and implications: The synthesized compounds exhibited promising activity against arachidonic acid-induced aggregation; however, none of them showed noticeable antiplatelet activity induced by adenosine di-phosphate. Chemical structure comparison of the prepared derivatives indicated the existence of a lipophilic medium-sized group on the phenyl ring increased their activity. In addition, the docking studies confirmed this hydrophobic interaction in the lipophilic pocket of cyclooxygenase-1 enzyme suggesting that hydrophobicity of this region plays a pivotal role in the anti-platelet activity of these compounds. To prove this finding, the enzymatic evaluation with the target enzyme is required.

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